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Parasol Academic Editing offers you a wide variety of editing services. 

In addtion to Manuscript Evaluation, work falls into the categories of  Basic copyediting, Standard copyediting, Deeper content and developmental editing, Layout and design services, Style and citation conformance editng, Proofreading services, and Other services:

Manuscript Evaluation

Getting an impartial and informed evaluation about the quality of academic writing can be quite difficult. Authors often receive advice about modifications needed for chapters, articles, and entire manuscripts that seem either daunting, too terse, or contradictory.  We offer manuscript evaluation services that will help you sort through such difficulties so you can concentrate on just those tasks needed to bring a work to acceptable completion.  Sometimes this is all an author needs.  If not, we offer a number of other services.

BASIC Copyediting

This service involves correcting errors in your manuscript such as …

  • typographical errors - spelling mistakes - punctuation issues (quotation marks, commas, colons, semicolons, apostrophe’s, dashes, etc.)  - grammar (subject-verb agreement, tense, pronoun usage, fragments, run-ons, word order, modifiers, parallelism, etc.)  - word usage and repetition - jargon, slang - awkward or ambiguous words and phrases - cross references - verbose wording - highlighting obvious errors of fact

STANDARD Copyediting

This service includes Basic copyediting tasks (above), and may also include things like

  • improving transitions between sections - moderate rewriting of text to improve clarity - improving headings and topic sentences - moderate restructuring of sections of text for better logical presentation and coherence - moderate reduction in the size of chapters - checking for orphaned or inconsistent cross-references - catching culturally inappropriate or inadvertently offensive text


This includes Standard copyediting services (above), and may also include things like …

  • significant restructuring of sections of text for better logical presentation - significant rewriting of text to improve clarity - significant reduction in the size of chapters -  important improvements in thesis identification and main argument development - enhancements to focus and coherence of primary thesis - needed adjustments to pacing and narrative flow - adjustments to chronology and its relation to overall structure - achieving a better fit between tone, language, and intended audience.

LAYOUT and DESIGN Services

This involves adjustments in the design and layout of a work to meet layout requirements just prior to submission to a given university or publisher. It may involve adjustments to ….

  • front matter, body, back matter
  • page size
  • fonts
  • margins, indents, and spacing
  • headers and footers
  • tables and figures
  • headings and subheadings
  • numbering of pages, tables, and figures
    hyphens, dashes, special characters

and other elements of the layout


A given work might be internally quite consistent, yet depart significantly from the guidelines set by a given department, university, journal, or other publisher.  Style and citation conformance ensures that a manuscript meets all requirements needed in in the organization and presentation of its notes (footnotes, endnotes), back matter (bibliography, appendices, etc), front matter (title page, tables of contents, lists of figures and tables, etc.), basic fonts and layout (italicization, page margins, line spacing, heading styles), and basic and other basic text features (alphabetization, capitalization, abbreviations) uniquely required by a given publisher's style requirements.


Not to be confused with any of the above, proofreading is a special case service that occurs after editing.  It involves correcting a small number of residual errors or typos in manuscript "proofs" or "galley copies" returned to authors by publishers just prior to final layout and publication.  It involves relatively minimal, but crucial, adjustments to a work to meet high writing and formatting standards of excellence. 

OTHER Services

This includes resume evaluation and editing, web site editing, technical writing, Spanish to English translation, indexing, annotated bibliographies, logo design, and layout design.  If you have a special need, just ask.



 .. Parasol greatly facilitated the final stages of my Ph.D. dissertation. The work done to make the dissertation well structured and compliant proved to be rewarding and a sound investment.  I continue to use Parasol for several publications generated from my dissertation work. ...

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I found Parasol to be a welcome source of support during an arduous process of getting my journal article ready for publication.  I was able to streamline my results in ways I had not imagined, and I was very grateful that this service was there to ensure that my manuscript met journal requirements to the letter